Introduction:

Networking is the practice of linking two or more computing devices together for the purpose of sharing data. Networks are built with a mix of computer hardware and computer software. For Example, computer network is a group of computers connected to each other electronically. This means that the computers can "talk" to each other and that every computer in the network can send information to the others. Usually, this means that the speed of the connection is fast - faster than a normal connection to the Internet.













 Network Types:

One way to categorize the different types of computer network designs is by their scope or scale. For historical reasons, the networking industry refers to nearly every type of design as some kind of area network. Common examples of area network types are:

LAN - Local Area Network
WLAN - Wireless Local Area Network
WAN - Wide Area Network
MAN - Metropolitan Area Network
SAN - Storage Area Network, System Area Network, Server Area Network, or sometimes Small Area Network
CAN - Campus Area Network, Controller Area Network, or sometimes Cluster Area Network
PAN - Personal Area Network
DAN - Desk Area Network

LAN and WAN were the original categories of area networks, while the others have gradually emerged over many years of technology evolution.

Note that these network types are a separate concept from network topologies such as bus, ring and star.

Wireless sensor network:

A wireless sensor network (WSN) consists of spatially distributed autonomous sensors to monitor physical or environmental conditions, such as temperature, sound, pressure, etc. and to cooperatively pass their data through the network to a main location. The more modern networks are bi-directional, also enabling control of sensor activity. The development of wireless sensor networks was motivated by military applications such as battlefield surveillance; today such networks are used in many industrial and consumer applications, such as industrial process monitoring and control, machine health monitoring, and so on.

The WSN is built of "nodes" – from a few to several hundreds or even thousands, where each node is connected to one (or sometimes several) sensors. Each such sensor network node has typically several parts: a radio transceiver with an internal antenna or connection to an external antenna, a microcontroller, an electronic circuit for interfacing with the sensors and an energy source, usually a battery or an embedded form of energy harvesting.

A sensor node might vary in size from that of a shoebox down to the size of a grain of dust, although functioning "motes" of genuine microscopic dimensions have yet to be created. The cost of sensor nodes is similarly variable, ranging from a few to hundreds of dollars, depending on the complexity of the individual sensor nodes. Size and cost constraints on sensor nodes result in corresponding constraints on resources such as energy, memory, computational speed and communications bandwidth.
















The topology of the WSNs can vary from a simple star network to an advanced multi-hop wireless mesh network. The propagation technique between the hops of the network can be routing or flooding. In computer science and telecommunications, wireless sensor networks are an active research area with numerous workshops and conferences arranged each year.

Applications

ü  Area monitoring
ü  Health care monitoring
ü  Air pollution monitoring
ü  Forest fire detection
ü  Landslide detection
ü  Water quality monitoring
ü  Natural disaster prevention
ü  Machine health monitoring
ü  Data logging
ü  Water/Waste water monitoring

Platforms

Standards and specifications

Several standards are currently either ratified or under development by organizations including WAVE2M for wireless sensor networks. There are a number of standardization bodies in the field of WSNs. The IEEE focuses on the physical and MAC layers; the Internet Engineering Task Force works on layers 3 and above. In addition to these, bodies such as the International Society of Automation provide vertical solutions, covering all protocol layers. Finally, there are also several non-standard, proprietary mechanisms and specifications.

Standards are used far less in WSNs than in other computing systems which make most systems incapable of direct communication between different systems. However predominant standards commonly used in WSN communications include:

ZigBee
802.15.4
6LoWPAN


Characteristics

The main characteristics of a WSN include:

Power consumption constrains for nodes using batteries or energy harvesting
Ability to cope with node failures
Mobility of nodes
Communication failures
Heterogeneity of nodes
Scalability to large scale of deployment
Ability to withstand harsh environmental conditions
Ease of use


MANET:

Stands for is Mobile Ad Hoc Network. A MANET is a type of ad hoc network that can change locations and configure itself on the fly. Because MANETS are mobile, they use wireless connections to connect to various networks. This can be a standard Wi-Fi connection, or another medium, such as a cellular or satellite transmission.

Some MANETs are restricted to a local area of wireless devices (such as a group of laptop computers), while others may be connected to the Internet. For example, A VANET (Vehicular Ad Hoc Network), is a type of MANET that allows vehicles to communicate with roadside equipment. While the vehicles may not have a direct Internet connection, the wireless roadside equipment may be connected to the Internet, allowing data from the vehicles to be sent over the Internet. The vehicle data may be used to measure traffic conditions or keep track of trucking fleets. Because of the dynamic nature of MANETs, they are typically not very secure, so it is important to be cautious what data is sent over a MANET.

















A mobile ad hoc network (MANET) is a self-configuring infrastructure less network of mobile devices connected by wireless. Ad hoc is Latin and means "for this purpose".

Each device in a MANET is free to move independently in any direction, and will therefore change its links to other devices frequently. Each must forward traffic unrelated to its own use, and therefore be a router. The primary challenge in building a MANET is equipping each device to continuously maintain the information required to properly route traffic. Such networks may operate by themselves or may be connected to the larger Internet.

MANETs are a kind of Wireless ad hoc network that usually has a routable networking environment on top of a Link Layer ad hoc network.

The growth of laptops and 802.11/Wi-Fi wireless networking has made MANETs a popular research topic since the mid-1990s. Many academic papers evaluate protocols and their abilities, assuming varying degrees of mobility within a bounded space, usually with all nodes within a few hops of each other. Different protocols are then evaluated based on measures such as the packet drop rate, the overhead introduced by the routing protocol, end-to-end packet delays, network throughput etc.

Applications of MANET:

MANETS can be used for facilitating the collection of sensor data for data mining for a variety of applications such as air pollution monitoring and different types of architectures can be used for such applications. It should be noted that a key characteristic of such applications is that nearby sensor nodes monitoring an environmental feature typically register similar values. This kind of data redundancy due to the spatial correlation between sensor observations inspires the techniques for in-network data aggregation and mining.

By measuring the spatial correlation between data sampled by different sensors, a wide class of specialized algorithms can be developed to develop more efficient spatial data mining algorithms as well as more efficient routing strategies.

Vehicular ad hoc network













A vehicular ad hoc network (VANET) uses cars as mobile nodes in a MANET to create a mobile network.  A VANET turns every participating car into a wireless router or node, allowing cars approximately 100 to 300 meters of each other to connect and, in turn, create a network with a wide range. As cars fall out of the signal range and drop out of the network, other cars can join in, connecting vehicles to one another so that a mobile Internet is created. It is estimated that the first systems that will integrate this technology are police and fire vehicles to communicate with each other for safety purposes. Automotive companies like General Motors, Toyota, Nissan, DaimlerChrysler, BMW and Ford promote this term.

















Vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs) are a subgroup of mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) with the distinguishing property that the nodes are vehicles like cars, trucks, buses and motorcycles. This implies that node movement is restricted by factors like road course, encompassing traffic and traffic regulations.

Because of the restricted node movement it is a feasible assumption that the VANET will be supported by some fixed infrastructure that assists with some services and can provide access to stationary networks. The fixed infrastructure will be deployed at critical locations like slip roads, service stations, dangerous intersections or places well-known for hazardous weather conditions.

Nodes are expected to communicate by means of North American DSRC standard that employs the IEEE 802.11p standard for wireless communication. To allow communication with participants out of radio range, messages have to be forwarded by other nodes (multi-hop communication). Vehicles are not subject to the strict energy, space and computing capabilities restrictions normally adopted for MANETs. More challenging is the potentially very high speed of the nodes (up to 250 km/h) and the large dimensions of the VANET.

The primary VANET's goal is to increase road safety. To achieve this, the vehicles act as sensors and exchange warnings or – more generally – telematics information (like current speed, location or ESP activity) that enables the drivers to react early to abnormal and potentially dangerous situations like accidents, traffic jams or glaze.

The information provided by other vehicles and stationary infrastructure might also be used for driver assistant systems like adaptive cruise control (ACC) or breaking assistants. In addition, authorized entities like police or firefighters should be able to send alarm signals and instructions e.g. to clear their way or stop other road users. Besides that, the VANET should increase comfort by means of value-added services like location based services or Internet on the road.

The improvement of the network technologies has provided the use of them in several different fields. One of the most emergent applications of them is the development of the Vehicular Ad-hoc Networks (VANETs), one special kind of Mobile Ad-hoc Networks (MANETs) in which the communications are among the nearby vehicles.

VANETs are composed for a set of communicating vehicles equipped with wireless network devices that are able to interconnect each other without any pre-existing infrastructure (ad-hoc mode). The most important network technology available nowadays for establishing VANETs is the IEEE 802.11b (Wi-Fi) standard, nevertheless new standards as IEEE 802.11p or IEEE 802.16 (WiMax) are promising.

The exchange of information among the vehicles provides a great opportunity for the development of new driver assistance systems. These systems will be able to disseminate and to gather real time information about the other vehicles and the road traffic and environmental conditions. Such data will be processed and analyzed to facilitate the driving by providing the user with useful information.

The creation of Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANET) has also spawn much interest in the rest of the world,  in German there is the FleetNet project and in Japan the ITS project.  Vehicular ad hoc networks are also known under a number of different terms such as inter­vehicle communication (IVC), Dedicated Short Range Communication (DSRC) or WAVE.  

The goal of most of these projects is to create new network algorithms or modify the existing for use in a vehicular environment.  In the future vehicular ad hoc networks will assist the drivers of vehicles and help to create safer roads by reducing the number of automobile accidents. 

A MANET is a self forming network, which can function without the need of any centralized control. Each node in an ad hoc network acts as both a data terminal and a router.  The nodes in the network then use the wireless medium to communicate with other nodes in their radio range.  A VANET is effectively a subset of MANETs.  

The benefit of using ad hoc networks is it is possible to deploy these networks in areas where it isn't feasible to install the needed infrastructure.  It would be expensive and unrealistic to install 802.11 access points to cover all of the roads in the United States.  Another benefit of ad hoc networks is they can be quickly deployed with no administrator involvement.  The administration of a large scale vehicular network would be a difficult task.  These reasons contribute to the ad hoc networks being applied to vehicular environments.

VANET security:

These applications imply different security and privacy requirements with respect to the protection goals integrity, confidentiality and availability. Nevertheless, there is a common need for a security infrastructure establishing mutual trust and enabling cryptography. Simply using digital signatures and a public key infrastructure (PKI) to protect message integrity is insufficient taking into account multilateral security and performance requirements.

Therefore we developed a security architecture for VANETs that balances security requirements of all participants while keeping in mind the realtime requirements. We also identified and – if necessary – developed feasible mechanisms that fit in this architecture. Currently, we evaluate the architecture and mechanisms in simulations.

Applications:

Most of the concerns of interest to mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) are of interest in VANETs, but the details differ. Rather than moving at random, vehicles tend to move in an organized fashion. The interactions with roadside equipment can likewise be characterized fairly accurately. And finally, most vehicles are restricted in their range of motion, for example by being constrained to follow a paved highway.

In addition, in 2006 the term MANET mostly described an academic area of research, and the term VANET an application.

Such a network might poses safety concerns (for example, one cannot safely type an email while driving). GPS and navigation systems might benefit, as they could be integrated with traffic reports to provide the fastest route to work. It was also promoted for free, VoIP services such as GoogleTalk or Skype between employees, lowering telecommunications costs.

Technology:

Intelligent vehicular ad-hoc network (InVANET) is another term for promoting vehicular networking. InVANET integrates multiple networking technologies such as Wi-Fi IEEE 802.11p, WAVE IEEE 1609, WiMAX IEEE 802.16, Bluetooth, IRA and ZigBee.

Standards:

Within the IEEE Communications Society, there is a Technical Subcommittee on Vehicular Networks & Telematics Applications (VNTA). The charter of this committee is to actively promote technical activities in the field of vehicular networks, V2V, V2R and V2I communications, standards, communications-enabled road and vehicle safety, real-time traffic monitoring, intersection management technologies, future telematics applications, and ITS-based services.

 

DHS-IEEE Projects SINCE 15 YEARS

Domain: Networking Details

Fig: Typical multi-hop wireless sensor network architecture

Fig: MANET

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Fig1: VANET

Fig Simple Network Diagram

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Fig 2:VANET